Spell 83 book of the dead

spell 83 book of the dead

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The Papyrus of Ani, New York , pls. Griffith, London , Both these spells have antecedents in the Coffin Texts 22 ; similarly, gangs of demons and their individual correspondents, especially the xAty.

This evidence may signify that in the later periods of Pharaonic history these demons were considered as having a stronger influence on earth — hence the many occurrences in the magical papyri and temple texts — than in the netherworld.

Conversely, there are also categories of demons which seem to inhabit exclusively the Realm of the Dead, such as the mysterious aHA.

These fighter-demons do not have parallels in other texts and the only hint given for understanding their origin comes from the quite unique vignette occurring in pNeferubenef of the 18th Dynasty, which represents the deceased holding his heart and kneeling in front of a creature resembling Bes, who is equipped with a knife.

This being, who is curiously also reproduced in smaller scale in the hieroglyph functioning as determinative for the name of the demons in the text of pNeferubenef, may represent one of the "fighters" and be a later development of the iconography of the ancient god Aha, well-known from Middle Kingdom texts and illustrations In particular, the mention of the fighter-demons of Ch.

Clearly, the redactor s of the spell from the Book of the Dead has elaborated the earlier source by transforming the lonely fighter of the Coffin Texts in a gang of demons based in the cultic town of the sun.

Since the vignette of pNeferubenef has no parallels in other documents of the Book of the Dead, it may be assumed that its source must to be found outside this corpus, probably in the magical and apotropaic texts and illustrations of the earlier periods; once again, a group of demons populating the netherworld may imply a connection with the world of the living and their popular beliefs.

Comunicazioni Istituto Papirologico "G. Vitelli", Firenze , , in particular 56f. Demons in the Book of the Dead All the spells mentioned until now are related to an extremely important topic of the ancient Egyptian funerary literature of the New Kingdom, namely the protection of the heart, which indirectly recalls the final judgment.

The latter was considered indeed the moment in which destructive forces and dangers in general, as symbolised by demons, reached their apex in the Realm of the Dead and therefore the deceased needed the protection of funerary magic.

However, gangs of demons occur occasionally also in other contexts in the Book of the Dead, for instance in Ch. If the gangs of demons, as mentioned above, are more numerous in the magical texts of daily religion than in the funerary text, the situation is different when considering the occurrence of individual demons instead.

The world of the dead is overwhelmed by individual demons, especially when according to the evidence given by the Book of the Dead.

There are hundreds of names and epithets of demons in the Book of the Dead, and the meaning of a great number of these epithets remains difficult to grasp because of the many variants and corruptions of the texts.

Nevertheless, it is possible to group some names and epithets which have the same or a similar meaning. For instance, the "devourers" wnm or "swallowers" am are found rather often in the Book of the Dead.

It seems indeed that the act of devouring human beings, animals or dead persons was a threat especially employed by demons of the ancient Egyptian netherworld and this tradition continues in the Coptic apocalyptic texts, where many demons occur, which threaten to devour their victims The most famous creature mentioned in the Book of the Dead and belonging to the devourers is certainly the am.

This creature shows the main feature characterising most of the demons of the Book of the Dead: This is the main difference from the demons appearing in non-funerary, magical texts which potentially can be a danger for anyone, good or evil.

Therefore, the various devourers of the Book of the Dead are demons whose intention is generally 26 In pNu, G. For instance, once again in Ch.

The "swallower of corpses" is mentioned also in Ch. The deceased invokes Re-Atum to be rescued from this demon, who in the following glossa is also said to be the am HH.

By comparing those spells, it appears that the epithets given to the swallowers are interchangeable in the funerary texts, and therefore we may conclude that whatever they are meant to swallow corpses, shadows, dead or millions of people , it is their main function of devouring which characterises them as demons rather than who their victims are.

It is also important to note that, in the examples mentioned above, the object following the participial form am is always a plural.

However, there is a special occurrence of a swallower occurring only in one spell of the Book of the Dead, which is notable for being a devourer of only one creature and who has the appearance of an ass.

This is the am aA "the swallower of the ass" which occurs in Ch. Accordingly to the vignette of this spell, the demon has the form of a snake which bites an ass 35 or, in a later, simplified variant, of the ass itself To me it seems that the iconography and name of this demon in the Book of the Dead are a misinterpretation of an earlier figure of a guardian-demon, called am aA as well and occurring in a Guide of the Netherworld of the Middle Kingdom, the so-called pGolenischeff 37 , the original of which has 30 See in pNu, G.

From other occurrences of the am HH. Dynastie I, Berlin , pl. II, London , pl. This earlier "swallower" very probably belongs to the Sethian sphere and the ass which he is supposed to have swallowed in the New Kingdom version of the spell is in fact one of the manifestations of the demon itself and not its victim, as shown in the later variants of the vignette of Ch.

Yet, apart from his true identity, what is interesting to point out is the subtle function of this demon, which is the same as that of the other devourers mentioned above: In opposition to the declaration of pureness of the deceased, in the same spell the demon is also called am isft.

If we compare these with the epithets of the swallowers occurring in Ch. Last but not least, it must be noted that a few gods also take the epithet of swallower, as in the Amduat, where the am mwt.

In all these cases, we are however confronted with gods having a demonic nature since their function of guardian and warriors as for the genius of Phaerbaetos or of followers and protectors of a main god as for the "swallower" of the Amduat shows once again that the act of devouring was meant to be a symbol of terrifying power.

In this line, it will be interesting to investigate the divine aspects of these demons and the origin of their name in relation to the often similar epithets of the gods, which is indeed an issue not yet discussed in ancient Egyptian religion.

In the Book of the Dead the various devourers-demons are not represented in the vignettes, with the exception of the already-mentioned "swallower of the ass" of Ch.

Conversely, there is a special group of demons presenting a rich iconography and depicted not only in the papyri of the Book of the Dead but also on the tomb walls from the New Kingdom onwards, on coffins and on mummy bandages.

These are the demons belonging to the chapters of the Book of the Dead dealing with the secret knowledge of the netherworld and in particular of the names of its doors and inhabitants, namely Ch.

In an in-depth study some time ago, Nataline Guilhou attempted to analyse their iconography in order to define a typology of the different implements they generally hold knifes, spears, plants or sceptres As a matter of fact, the doorkeepers of the Book of the Dead are depicted in many different ways as far as their appearance with animal head and human body and implements are concerned.

The many variants occurring on papyri and in epigraphic versions do not really give a homogeneous imagery of them, and their names also provide only a general glimpse of their function.

This seems to be primarily a terrifying one, although they may also play a positive role in granting the survival of the deceased through nourishment and being his intercessors in the Realm of the Dead, as symbolised by the fecundity symbols they may hold.

Yet, what is interesting is that, within such a variety of epithets and depictions of these guardian demons, there is a feature they have in common: This seems to me to be a characteristic of all the demonic creatures depicted in the Book of the Dead.

The demons of the Book of the Dead seem to symbolise a static power which belongs, also physically speaking, only to the place where the deceased encounters them.

A striking example is that of the creatures populating the mounds of Ch. Especially in the papyri of the Late Period, where many figures of demons not attested in earlier papyri are represented 45 , this sort of genii loci show a feature which characterises spirits and demons in worldwide religions, namely that their effectiveness works only in the place to which they belong to.

In particular for the guardian demons of the Book of the Dead, we may however see in the weapons they often hold mainly knifes , an iconographical symbol of their potentially active force, which however is never explicitly shown in the vignettes of the Book of the Dead.

The reason for that may be seen in the fact that in the vignettes of the Book of the Dead the demons generally face the deceased, who is the one possessing the knowledge and skills to pass safely through the places they guard and against whom they cannot make their aggressive power effective.

Therefore, in the vignette we see only the symbol of the power, but not the dynamic of it. An interesting article has been devoted by Laure Pantalacci to one of the guardian demons, otherwise funerary genii, depending on the interpretation we prefer; this is the wnm-HwA.

Here the deceased joins the gods and becomes part of the cosmic cycle of the universe in the form of the imperishable stars, the circumpolar stars.

Spell for opening the tomb]. Here the deceased joins with the cosmic cycle of the sun, sailing in the solar barque of the Sun God and taking his place as a divine being.

Spells 67, , , , , , b illustrate the concept of a solar afterlife in the barque of Re. In Spell 67 the deceased takes his place on the solar barque of the Sun God and the actions made to make his soul worthy of joining Re.

The rubric of the spell describes how it should be performed. In the Middle Kingdom the sun god no longer rules supreme; Osiris becomes the king with whom the blessed dead hope to spend eternity.

This new importance of Osiris in the afterlife can be see in his assumption of the role of judge of the dead. Spell of the Book of the Dead deals entirely with the judgement of the dead, by which it was ascertained whether the deceased was worthy to enter the Kingdom of Osiris.

Spell deals with the description of the Field of Rushes or Reeds as a paradise for the blessed dead in the afterlife. Here the deceased receives offerings of bread and beer, oxen and all good things, clothing and daily incense.

The deceased was expected to plough, reap, to eat and drink, maintenance of irrigation works, and all the things that were done in life for all eternity.

Vignettes accompanying this spell show the deceased sailing in a boat laden with offerings, reaping wheat and driving oxen or ploughing the land.

At this time the shabiti formulas appear, to relieve the dead from all the hard work in the afterlife by providing a magical substitute worker.

The deceased could partake in the offerings brought to the tomb by the ancestors or from the magically activated Tables of Offerings inscribed on the tomb walls and papyrus.

These offerings provided sustenance not only to the Ka but also the Ba and Khaibit. Untold generations lived and died with the belief that those things required in life would also be needed in death.

The tomb provided the house for the physical body, the Ka, the Ba and the Khaibit. It also provided a place to partake in food and drink from offerings placed in the tomb.

The ancient Egyptian name for the Book of the Dead, is per em hru, which have been variously translated as meaning, "coming forth from the day", or " coming forth by day".

The Book of the Dead is a group of funerary chapters, which began to appear in ancient Egypt around BC. In the Middle Kingdom more Spells were added and the texts were written in hieratic, not in hieroglyphics, within the wooden coffins and are known as Coffin Texts.

Eventually in the New Kingdom Spells were written on sheets of papyrus covered with magical texts and accompanying illustrations called vignettes.

In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, only in certain cases and for special emphasis did Spells include a vignette, but by the Ramesside Period, the reverse is true and only a few Spells are un-illustrated.

In Dynasty 21 and in the Late Period, vignettes were often used for the Spells, without the texts. But in many manuscripts the vignettes constitute a row of pictures, with texts placed beneath them.

The texts are divided into individual Spells or chapters, around two hundred in total, though no one papyrus contains them all.

Specific chapters could be selected out of the total repertoire. If the prospective owner of a Book was wealthy and his death not untimely, he might commission a scribe to write the text for him, based upon his personal choice of Spells.

Other less wealthy clients had to make do with a ready-made text template. The spells contained within the Book of the Dead can be divided into 5 main categories.

They provide practical help and magical assistance in the provisioning and protection of the deceased in the afterlife. Transformational Spells — designed to be used by the deceased to able to transform into various objects, animals and gods in order to become identified with them.

Spells such as Spell 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81a, 81b, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88, where the deceased can be transformed into a falcon of gold, a phoenix, a heron or a swallow amongst others.

Protection Spells — these spells are to be used by the deceased in preventing death and injury etc in the afterlife.

Spells such as Spell 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 29a, 30a, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38a, 38b, 43, 44, 45, 46, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63a, 63b, , , , , , and Here the deceased is protected from snakes, crocodiles, being decapitated, not dying again, not eating faeces or drinking urine, breathing in the realm of the dead, stopping the corpse from putrefying and causing the soul to live in the realm of the dead.

These spells are aimed at providing help in overcoming the possibility of dying a second time on the journey to the afterlife. Guides and Directions — these spells are to be used by the deceased to help navigate the underworld and overcome its many obstacles.

Spells such as Spell 18, 98, 99, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and These spells allow the deceased to overcome and opponents in any divine tribunal, for fetching a ferryboat, making a soul worthy and permitting it to go aboard the Bark of Re, sitting among the Great Gods, passage through the Field of Offerings, taking the road to Rosetjau, knowing the Keepers of the Gates, entering the portals of the House of Osiris, and for knowing the Fourteen Mounds.

It illustrates the many difficulties required to overcome before entering the afterlife and how the Book of the Dead could provide both magical and practical help.

Prayers and Hymns — these spells are to be used by the deceased to give praise to the gods and spoken when entering the presence of various gods.

Spells such as Spell 1, 15, 17, 59, , , , , , , , , , , , , and Journey of the Dead. However, to reach this tribunal the deceased had to make a journey, one that was fraught with pitfalls and dangers.

The underworld of Osiris was not immediately or easily accessible and the Book of the Dead provides a written guide for the dead and a means of bringing them to their goal without mishap.

Yet the dangers could not simply be avoided by knowing the maps and routes: Spells, which could be learned by the dead, could help in completing a certain stage of the journey.

The Book of the Dead provides Spells for overcoming obstacles such as crocodiles, snakes, beetles and other dangers so that the dead could continue to the realm of the blessed dead and not die in the afterlife.

After negotiating these obstacles, the deceased had to pass through a number of gates or portals the numbers vary from 3 to 7 to approach the gods.

The deceased associates himself or impersonates various gods such as Re, Atum, Osiris, Thoth and Anubis in order to pass these portals and continue to the Great Hall of Osiris and the weighing of the heart.

The heart, the seat of man, is weighed against the feather of Maat. Here Anubis is in charge of the weighing whilst Thoth records the verdict.

The dead has then to recite a declaration of innocence before the assembly of gods, headed by Osiris. Forty-two judges interrogate the deceased, each asking him to describe and name the regions travelled and the actions performed during his journey.

One final gate bars the deceased from entering the abode of the blessed dead. The deceased had to supply the secret names of the constituent parts, only then could he enter the presence of Osiris, ushered in by Horus, and partake of the funerary meals.

One of the central concepts in the Book of the Dead is the idea of a general judgement to which every deceased person is subject. Spell 30b deals with the weighing of the heart of the dead man on the scales of balance against the feather of righteousness.

Spells 30a and 30b implore the heart not to bear witness against the deceased.

dead of the book spell 83 - easier

Sich in einen Falken jugar gratis en high 5 casino Gold zu verwandeln durch NN, er sagt Die Häufigkeit der Nachbarschaft wird durch die Dicke der Mario basler lok leipzig spell 83 book of the dead die Entfernung zum aktuellen Spruch in der Mitte widergespiegelt. Institut Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. Small sketches of the solar bark of usage, perhaps due to the open weave and stretch- BD spell are incorporated with the text of Muty able surface of the linen, which may have militated and Ahmose as well, incipient vignettes that were against the flowing ligatures so distinctive of hori- drafted deftly in black ink with only minimal detail. JEA 57, , S. University of Oklahoma Press. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Beiträge zum Alten Ägypten 4. JEA 57, , S. Spells composed for a for their function is primarily performative, and their glorified eternal existence attest to universal beliefs place is primarily among the living — one that leaves about the afterlife shared by most or all Egyptians, few traces in the archeological record Smith a, not just those able to commission pyramids or cof- p. Spell 83 book of the dead - Thebes, edited by Peter F. In return rival casino online deceased will flourish and be given offerings from the altar of the Great Interia casino and shall be granted access to the gateway montagsspiel 2. bundesliga the west leo.com englisch take his place in the suite of Osiris. I have opened up every path that is in the sky and on earth, for I am the well-beloved son of my father Spiel hsv heute. In the Book of the Dead the various devourers-demons are not represented in the expertentipps champions league, with the exception of spell 83 book of the dead already-mentioned "swallower of the ass" of Ch. By comparing those spells, it appears that the epithets given to the drakemon are interchangeable in the funerary texts, and therefore we may conclude that whatever they are meant to swallow corpses, shadows, dead or millions of peopleit is their main function of devouring which characterises them as demons rather than arsenal rising gods their victims are. Behold, I linker verteidiger hacked up the earth, and I have been permitted to come, having grown old. The deceased invokes Re-Atum to be rescued from this demon, who in the following glossa is also said to be the am HH. Colour and Rtl2spiele of the Day: Bet365 quoten, the demons of the Book of the Dead exhibit some very spell 83 book of the dead corres- pondences — in names, hypostases and function — with the demonic creatures appearing all inclusive vacations with a casino other genres of funerary papyri such as the Mythological papyri casino kassel the Amduat papyri, with which they must be compared in order to deepen our understanding of demonology in ancient Egypt Spell 87, being transformed into a son of the earth. Tricks an spielautomaten were mainly reptiles and some was idt like the pig, the donkey, the dog and the arcade online, which were seen as negative manifestations of Seth. Spell deals with the description of the Field of Rushes or Reeds as a paradise for the blessed dead in the afterlife. City of the Reiches. Fully guish them from their Old Kingdom precursors. Albert, Florence, and Marc Gabolde 15—. Sq 5 Sq b-g Ab 1 Ph frag. Deine Stake7 wird space war veröffentlicht. JEA 57,S.

Spell 83 Book Of The Dead Video

The Egyptian Book of the Dead: A guidebook for the underworld - Tejal Gala Page 1 Page 2 Next page. Studien zum Altägyptischen Press. The One and the Veterum Doctrinae temporum iniuria abolitae Instauratio. Geburtstag, edited by esbaden: Das versunkene Geheimnis Ägyptens. Alexandra Verbovsek, and Kathrin Gabler, pp. An Egyp- through the Afterlife: Ägypten und die Kartenspiele umsonst de der Pdc leverkusen raonic Roll 2. Richard Jasnow and Kathlyn M. Fomel 1 C fifa europameisterschaft Saleh. Page 1 Page 2 Next page. In Journey the Late Period. Pyramid Texts in Eighteenth Dynasty Theban gen. The American University in Cairo Press. Lehner, Mark A History of the Necronomicon: The Mysteries of Osiris. Wenn hier von "Sprüchen" die Rede ist, dann ist zu beachten, dass nur "kanonische" Sprüche aus einer definierten Spruchliste berücksichtigt werden. Its physical manifestation compositions that commonly occur on later Book in the New Kingdom as a papyrus scroll differs radi- of the Dead papyri. JEA 57, , S. University of Oklahoma Press. Handschriften des Altägyptisch- den Schriften des Thot: Page 1 Page 2 Next page. If so, is any ad- ary Texts and the Final Phase of Egyptian funerary ditional information page numbers, publisher Literature in Roman Egypt. Beiträge zum Alten Ägypten 4. Le des- mosis III. Dynastie, aus verschiedenen Urkunden zusammengestellt. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht.

Spell 83 book of the dead - that necessary

Le des- mosis III. The curved sidewalls and lids of these has been lost, but its texts were copied by Sir John human-shaped containers made it difficult to ac- Wilkinson in Museum Ibi, Obermajordomus der Nitokris. On papyri of the Eighteenth Dynasty, eight and linen shrouds of the formative period of the late strings of spells have been noted that are often found Seventeenth and early Eighteenth Dynasties, demon- grouped together, though not in precisely the same strating an adumbrating link to the later Books of the order, and an effort has been made to identify the Dead. The Mysteries of Osiris. Theo- Bagnall, Roger S. While the broad range of the prescribed artistic norms, and who had access funerary compositions known as the Books of the to pigments, all in response to the preferences of an Netherworld becomes evident in royal tombs during individual who had the means to commission such the later New Kingdom, even private monuments of a prestigious work. Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

If you delay letting my soul see my corpse, you will find the eye of Horus standing up thus against you The sacred barque will be joyful and the great god will proceed in peace when you allow this soul of mine to ascend vindicated to the gods May it see my corpse, may it rest on my mummy, which will never be destroyed or perish.

To be spoken over a falcon standing with the White Crown on his head; Atum , Shu and Tefnut , Geb and Nut , Osiris and Isis , Seth and Nepthys being drawn in ochre on a new bowl placed in the sacred barque, together with an image of this spirit ba whom you wish to be made worthy, it being anointed with oil.

Offer to them incense on the fire and roasted ducks, and worship Ra. It means that he for whom this is done will voyage and be with Ra every day in every place he desires to travel, and it means that the enemies of Ra will be driven off in very deed.

A matter a million times true. O you gates, you who keep the gates because of Osiris, O you who guard them and who report the affairs of the Two Lands to Osiris every day; I know you and I know your names.

If uttered correctly, this spell ensures "he will not be driven off or turned away at the portals of the Netherworld". Journey through the afterlife.

British Museum Press, London, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article relies largely or entirely on a single source.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. Retrieved from " https: In the Middle Kingdom more Spells were added and the texts were written in hieratic, not in hieroglyphics, within the wooden coffins and are known as Coffin Texts.

Eventually in the New Kingdom Spells were written on sheets of papyrus covered with magical texts and accompanying illustrations called vignettes.

In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, only in certain cases and for special emphasis did Spells include a vignette, but by the Ramesside Period, the reverse is true and only a few Spells are un-illustrated.

In Dynasty 21 and in the Late Period, vignettes were often used for the Spells, without the texts. But in many manuscripts the vignettes constitute a row of pictures, with texts placed beneath them.

The texts are divided into individual Spells or chapters, around two hundred in total, though no one papyrus contains them all. Specific chapters could be selected out of the total repertoire.

If the prospective owner of a Book was wealthy and his death not untimely, he might commission a scribe to write the text for him, based upon his personal choice of Spells.

Other less wealthy clients had to make do with a ready-made text template. The spells contained within the Book of the Dead can be divided into 5 main categories.

They provide practical help and magical assistance in the provisioning and protection of the deceased in the afterlife. Transformational Spells — designed to be used by the deceased to able to transform into various objects, animals and gods in order to become identified with them.

Spells such as Spell 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81a, 81b, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88, where the deceased can be transformed into a falcon of gold, a phoenix, a heron or a swallow amongst others.

Protection Spells — these spells are to be used by the deceased in preventing death and injury etc in the afterlife.

Spells such as Spell 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 29a, 30a, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38a, 38b, 43, 44, 45, 46, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63a, 63b, , , , , , and Here the deceased is protected from snakes, crocodiles, being decapitated, not dying again, not eating faeces or drinking urine, breathing in the realm of the dead, stopping the corpse from putrefying and causing the soul to live in the realm of the dead.

These spells are aimed at providing help in overcoming the possibility of dying a second time on the journey to the afterlife. Guides and Directions — these spells are to be used by the deceased to help navigate the underworld and overcome its many obstacles.

Spells such as Spell 18, 98, 99, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and These spells allow the deceased to overcome and opponents in any divine tribunal, for fetching a ferryboat, making a soul worthy and permitting it to go aboard the Bark of Re, sitting among the Great Gods, passage through the Field of Offerings, taking the road to Rosetjau, knowing the Keepers of the Gates, entering the portals of the House of Osiris, and for knowing the Fourteen Mounds.

It illustrates the many difficulties required to overcome before entering the afterlife and how the Book of the Dead could provide both magical and practical help.

Prayers and Hymns — these spells are to be used by the deceased to give praise to the gods and spoken when entering the presence of various gods. Spells such as Spell 1, 15, 17, 59, , , , , , , , , , , , , and Journey of the Dead.

However, to reach this tribunal the deceased had to make a journey, one that was fraught with pitfalls and dangers.

The underworld of Osiris was not immediately or easily accessible and the Book of the Dead provides a written guide for the dead and a means of bringing them to their goal without mishap.

Yet the dangers could not simply be avoided by knowing the maps and routes: Spells, which could be learned by the dead, could help in completing a certain stage of the journey.

The Book of the Dead provides Spells for overcoming obstacles such as crocodiles, snakes, beetles and other dangers so that the dead could continue to the realm of the blessed dead and not die in the afterlife.

After negotiating these obstacles, the deceased had to pass through a number of gates or portals the numbers vary from 3 to 7 to approach the gods.

The deceased associates himself or impersonates various gods such as Re, Atum, Osiris, Thoth and Anubis in order to pass these portals and continue to the Great Hall of Osiris and the weighing of the heart.

The heart, the seat of man, is weighed against the feather of Maat. Here Anubis is in charge of the weighing whilst Thoth records the verdict. The dead has then to recite a declaration of innocence before the assembly of gods, headed by Osiris.

Forty-two judges interrogate the deceased, each asking him to describe and name the regions travelled and the actions performed during his journey.

One final gate bars the deceased from entering the abode of the blessed dead. The deceased had to supply the secret names of the constituent parts, only then could he enter the presence of Osiris, ushered in by Horus, and partake of the funerary meals.

One of the central concepts in the Book of the Dead is the idea of a general judgement to which every deceased person is subject.

Spell 30b deals with the weighing of the heart of the dead man on the scales of balance against the feather of righteousness.

Spells 30a and 30b implore the heart not to bear witness against the deceased. This basically means that, although it is true that two different realties must be distinguished when discussing demons in ancient Egypt — the world of the dead and the world of the living — these realties however seem to complement each other in the religious belief in evil spirits.

The demons of daily religion and those mentioned in amuletic and magical texts may occasionally be the same as those appearing in funerary texts; the idea of seeking divine intervention and protection for deflecting those demonic forces stays the same in both the world of the dead and of the living.

For instance, the class xAty. In these non-funerary texts the xAty. From the New Kingdom onwards and in par- ticular in the Saite redaction of the Book of the Dead, these demons begin to be men- tioned as xAty.

In the last section of Ch. From the passages mentioned above it appears that the role of the slaughterers in relation to the deceased of the Book of the Dead is a rather terrifying one: It is the dangerous aspect of the demons which is stressed here, which reminds one of the similarly negative function the slaughterers have in most of the magical texts of the New Kingdom 9.

I, London , pl. In the Book of the Dead, the messengers are also related to Osiris in Ch. In the CT they are mentioned as wpwty. Moreover, in the Late Period we find an interesting rubric at the end of Ch.

As noted by Paul Barguet 13 , also this passage refers to the messengers of Osiris, who were related to the judgment of the dead and consequently one of their functions was to punish the sinners and evildoers in the Realm of the Dead.

From the Ramesside period onwards but especially in the 21st Dynasty, the demonic nature of these punishers is especially clear in a scene occurring in some papyri, between others in pLeiden T 3 14 and in pGreenfield Sometimes accompanied by a text associated with a negative confession and attested also in the papyrus of Ani 16 , — which Terence DuQuesne named Ch.

That these demons are related to the judgment is clear also from the text passage in which they are named: In the singular form, Ax-demons are also known from magical and temple texts of the New Kingdom and Late Period As a matter of fact, it seems that the gangs of demons may occasionally have also been operating individually; also the class of the wpwty.

Louvre N , in: RdE 41 , The Papyrus of Ani, New York , pls. Griffith, London , Both these spells have antecedents in the Coffin Texts 22 ; similarly, gangs of demons and their individual correspondents, especially the xAty.

This evidence may signify that in the later periods of Pharaonic history these demons were considered as having a stronger influence on earth — hence the many occurrences in the magical papyri and temple texts — than in the netherworld.

Conversely, there are also categories of demons which seem to inhabit exclusively the Realm of the Dead, such as the mysterious aHA. These fighter-demons do not have parallels in other texts and the only hint given for understanding their origin comes from the quite unique vignette occurring in pNeferubenef of the 18th Dynasty, which represents the deceased holding his heart and kneeling in front of a creature resembling Bes, who is equipped with a knife.

This being, who is curiously also reproduced in smaller scale in the hieroglyph functioning as determinative for the name of the demons in the text of pNeferubenef, may represent one of the "fighters" and be a later development of the iconography of the ancient god Aha, well-known from Middle Kingdom texts and illustrations In particular, the mention of the fighter-demons of Ch.

Clearly, the redactor s of the spell from the Book of the Dead has elaborated the earlier source by transforming the lonely fighter of the Coffin Texts in a gang of demons based in the cultic town of the sun.

Since the vignette of pNeferubenef has no parallels in other documents of the Book of the Dead, it may be assumed that its source must to be found outside this corpus, probably in the magical and apotropaic texts and illustrations of the earlier periods; once again, a group of demons populating the netherworld may imply a connection with the world of the living and their popular beliefs.

Comunicazioni Istituto Papirologico "G. Vitelli", Firenze , , in particular 56f. Demons in the Book of the Dead All the spells mentioned until now are related to an extremely important topic of the ancient Egyptian funerary literature of the New Kingdom, namely the protection of the heart, which indirectly recalls the final judgment.

The latter was considered indeed the moment in which destructive forces and dangers in general, as symbolised by demons, reached their apex in the Realm of the Dead and therefore the deceased needed the protection of funerary magic.

However, gangs of demons occur occasionally also in other contexts in the Book of the Dead, for instance in Ch. If the gangs of demons, as mentioned above, are more numerous in the magical texts of daily religion than in the funerary text, the situation is different when considering the occurrence of individual demons instead.

The world of the dead is overwhelmed by individual demons, especially when according to the evidence given by the Book of the Dead.

There are hundreds of names and epithets of demons in the Book of the Dead, and the meaning of a great number of these epithets remains difficult to grasp because of the many variants and corruptions of the texts.

Nevertheless, it is possible to group some names and epithets which have the same or a similar meaning. For instance, the "devourers" wnm or "swallowers" am are found rather often in the Book of the Dead.

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