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As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.

Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.

Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.

Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions.

Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The unemployment rate was 7. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.

Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes.

Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.

Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.

Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.

As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development. Both facilities have strong implications on material research.

Every Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension.

There are several types of pensions in Sweden: A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions.

The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, on 30 November The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated.

Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish, [7] [8] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.

Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.

The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.

However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.

Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish.

Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century.

Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.

However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.

Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.

The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law on Freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.

Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children that are christened become members.

Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.

The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland.

Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , [].

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.

It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.

Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish: Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school.

The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally [] by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get.

School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged. There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.

In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

According to Eurostat , in , there were 1. Of these, , 9. In , immigration reached its highest level since records began, with , people emigrating to Sweden.

The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year.

In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.

Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.

Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage , [] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.

Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums.

Sweden has a significant folk-music scene. There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality.

Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.

Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal bands, including Bathory , Opeth , Amon Amarth and Ghost.

The renowned neo-classical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden. In the mids, Martin came back with a more rock-tinged sound and produced major hits with artists such as Kelly Clarkson , Pink and Katy Perry.

Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contest , with a total of six victories in the contest , , , , and , right behind Ireland who have seven wins.

In the Eurovision Song Contest each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio; however, no restriction on the nationality of the songwriter or the artist exists which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country.

In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing — entirely or partly — of entries from several countries in addition to Sweden.

For instance, in the edition of Eurovision Song Contest, Swedish songwriters and producers featured in 10 out of the 42 songs that qualified for the contest; in , the numbers were 7 songs out of the 39 songs in the contest; in , 7 songs out of 37 songs in the contest; in , 8 songs out of 40 songs in the contest; in , 12 songs out of 42 songs in the contest.

Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.

As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.

Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.

Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripsholm Castle and the one at Vadstena.

In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.

The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal.

The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden.

Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.

Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.

The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.

TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.

Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.

With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.

Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.

In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.

In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition.

The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple.

Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.

The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, others perhaps a century or less, are still a very important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey.

Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women. Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world.

The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.

The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden.

The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation.

For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation. Greater coat of arms.

Du gamla, Du fria [b] Thou ancient, thou free. Show map of Europe. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to the United States.

History of Sweden —present. Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Subdivisions of Sweden and National Areas of Sweden.

Foreign relations of Sweden. Swedish Armed Forces and Law enforcement in Sweden. Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden. Social security in Sweden.

Demographics of Sweden and Swedes. Largest cities or towns in Sweden "Kommungruppsindelning ". Swedish language and Languages of Sweden.

Public holidays in Sweden. Sweden portal Arctic portal. Royal Court of Sweden. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 14 October United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 15 July Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 9 June Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.

As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity , there are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden.

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Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor.

Only the safety valve of mass emigration to America prevented famine and rebellion. In economic and social terms the eighteenth century was more a transitional than a revolutionary period.

Sweden was, in light of contemporary Western European standards, a relatively poor but stable country. Social and economic conditions ".

Throughout Swedish history the countryside has taken an unusually important role in comparison with other European states.

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Much that he found will surprise many people, as it did him. The many nonbelievers he interviewed, both informally and in structured, taped and transcribed sessions, were anything but antireligious, for example.

They typically balked at the label "atheist. Though they denied most of the traditional teachings of Christianity, they called themselves Christians, and most were content to remain in the Danish National Church or the Church of Sweden, the traditional national branches of Lutheranism.

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Archived from the original on 15 June Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 41,2 Jahre. Die Mehrheit der Einwohner sind ethnische Schweden.

Es gibt heute insgesamt etwa Eine andere Minderheit sind die heute etwa Die traditionelle Rentierzucht spielt bis heute eine Rolle.

Die samischen Sprachen wurden im Jahr zu anerkannten Minderheitensprachen. Die schwedische Sprache ist seit dem 1.

Juli nicht nur de facto , sondern auch gesetzliche Amtssprache. Zwischen und haben etwa Die orthodoxen und orientalisch-orthodoxen Kirchen haben etwa Daneben gibt es in Schweden etwa Das schwedische Bildungssystem umfasst vier Teilbereiche: Doch bis ins Durch Erbschaft und Heirat hatte sie zuvor die norwegische und schwedische Krone erlangt.

Im Jahr wurde Gustav I. Viele Traditionen, die im deutschen Protestantismus aufgehoben werden sollten, wurden beibehalten. Vor allem das Schweden musste daraufhin seine Besitzungen im Baltikum abgeben.

Sie war bis ins Jahrhundert hinein jedoch nie eine offizielle politische Doktrin , sondern mehr Ausdruck pragmatischer Politik.

Parallel mit dem Ausbau des Sozialsystems arbeitete man auch an einer Verfassungsreform, die in den er Jahren durch mehrere Grundgesetze schrittweise verwirklicht wurde siehe Verfassung von Schweden.

November der Internationalen Gemeinschaft bei. Innenpolitisch begegnete er mehreren Schwierigkeiten. Regierung und Opposition erhielten je Mandate.

Oft wurden Abstimmungen im Reichstag daher per Losentscheid entschieden. Nach der Wahlniederlage der Sozialdemokraten am Ein politischer Machtwechsel vollzog sich mit dem Wahlverlust der Sozialdemokraten.

Bei der Reichstagswahl gewannen die Sozialdemokraten erneut und Ingvar Carlsson bildete eine Minderheitsregierung. Schweden ist eine parlamentarisch-demokratische Monarchie.

Das Einkammer-Parlament, der Reichstag schwed. Schweden ist in 21 Provinzen schwed. Die kommunale Selbstverwaltung geschieht auf zwei Ebenen: Nachdem der Haushaltsentwurf der Regierung am 3.

Dezember , also drei Monate nach der letzten Parlamentswahl auszurufenden Neuwahlen fanden daher nicht statt. Diese lehnen sich teilweise an die historischen Provinzen landskap an, in die das Reich bis eingeteilt war, was sich in der Namensgebung vieler Provinzen spiegelt.

Die heutigen Provinzen sind: Ebenfalls Regionen gebildet haben Halland und Gotland. Die Gemeinden stellen die Verwaltungseinheit unter den Provinziallandtagen dar.

In Schweden gibt es Gemeinden. Als solche untersteht sie direkt der schwedischen Regierung und nicht, wie in vielen anderen Staaten, dem Verteidigungsminister.

Die elf- bis siebzehnmonatige Wehrpflicht wurde am 1. Juli ausgesetzt, nachdem seit Ende des Kalten Krieges bereits immer weniger Soldaten eingezogen wurden Juli bis zum Der Gesamtbesitz an Immobilien, Aktien und Bargeld belief sich auf insgesamt 1.

Elektrische Energie wird in Schweden vor allem durch erneuerbare Energien und Kernenergie produziert: Dieser Ausstiegsplan wurde nur teilweise vollzogen.

Juli und den zweiten vor dem 1. Juli stillzulegen, allerdings unter der Voraussetzung, dass deren Stromproduktion kompensiert werden kann. Der Verzicht auf die Nutzung der Kernenergie wird in Schweden kontrovers diskutiert.

Die Leistung der drei noch in Betrieb befindlichen Kernkraftwerke ist in den letzten Jahren erheblich gesteigert worden. Die Betreiber von Kernkraftwerken gehen von einer Nutzungszeit der bestehenden Anlagen etwa bis zum Jahr aus.

Februar beschloss der Schwedische Reichstag den Neubau von zehn Reaktoren in den drei bestehenden Kraftwerken. Der Bericht empfiehlt bis zum Jahr folgende Ziele zu verwirklichen: Im Jahr war Schweden das Land, in dem die Energiewende weltweit am weitesten vorangeschritten war.

Euro, zu Schwedens BIP bei. Daneben existieren mehrere kleinere Eisenbahngesellschaften mit lokaler Bedeutung.

Das betraf beispielsweise die Inlandsbahn nach Nordschweden. In Deutschland waren es im selben Jahr 4,3 Tote. Bis herrschte in Schweden Linksverkehr.

Januar wird Trettondedag jul dreizehnter Weihnachtstag, auch Trettondag jul begangen. Januar ist die Weihnachtszeit vorbei.

Karfreitag und Ostermontag sind gesetzliche Feiertage. April gefeiert und entspricht der deutschen Walpurgisnacht. Mai ein wichtiges Studentenfest.

Juni, Svenska flaggans dag , ist der offizielle Nationalfeiertag Schwedens. Das Midsommarfest wird in der ersten Nacht zum Samstag nach dem Die Heftigkeit des Feierns dieses Wochenendes ist nur mit Weihnachten vergleichbar.

Der Feiertag ist eine uralte Tradition und wurzelt in den vorgeschichtlichen Sommersonnenwendfeiern.

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Schweden w 186
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Katholiken in Skandinavien - Kirche im Aufbruch. Inzwischen werden in Schweden jährlich rund Das Eishockeyteam Schwedens gehört zu den besten der Welt. Bestimmte grammatische Phänomene eines Dialektes können der Standardsprache einer anderen Nationalsprache angehören. Johan Helmich Roman — gilt als eigentlicher Vater der schwedischen Kunstmusik. Mitgliedstaaten der Europäischen Union EU. Das Vermögen pro erwachsene Person beträgt

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